Cubase Pro Mixdown – Part 1: faders

23 05 2012

OK, in the previous tutorials we have recorded the basic audio tracks. Now, it is time to do some mixing. That’s what we’re here for, that’s what we do, brother. Mixing the song in Cubase, that is our mission. Are you ready?

During the mixing phase you try to blend everything together so that the whole song sounds like a unity, rather than many individual tracks that don’t really belong together. For most people this is harder than it sounds. I often have to remind myself of the fact, that not everyone is a seasoned pro with years of experience under his belt. It is easy to forget sometimes that most people have no clue as to how mixing is done correctly. Some people have a hard time learning even the most basic mixing skills. They struggle to get a grasp, but to no avail. These people will never make it to the top!

First of all, we have to set the faders just right. The faders are sliders that serve as the volume control FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL TRACK! Are you with me? If you move a fader, the volume of the track that the fader is pointing to will go up or down, depending on the direction you move the fader. Up means louder and down means the opposite.

You have just imported a drum loop and recorded a bass guitar. Upon listening to the tracks you find that you can barely hear the drums. The volume is too low. Now you have two options, or actually three options: you can either grab the fader of the drum track and move it up, or you could grab the fader of the bass track and move it down. The third option would be a compromise, kind of a best-of-both-worlds approach. You can both move the fader for the drum track up and the fader for the bass track down, but not as much as you would have if you had only adjusted one fader. That’s an absolute pro-tip right here. But you should be careful. If you overdo it, you can end with the drum track being way too loud and the bass track being inaudible.You would then have to reverse the fader positions and start all over again. You would be back to square one!


There are other ways to make something louder as well. With a compressor for example you can raise the average loudness of a track considerably. Many youngsters this approach, but they fail. Because it is easy to fire up a compressor and turn a couple of knobs. But it is much harder to do it correctly. Check out my compressor tutorial for the no-frills approach to using the compressor correctly.

My mentor, legendary recording engineer Herb Bjornsen, once told me: ‘a recording engineer rides the faders, and he rides ’em hard!’ I learned this leson very well. When people came to my studio and saw the faders of my Neve console they could barely contain themselves. The faders showed the signs of years of hard labour. They told a story. Each fader was like a person – with it’s own history. That’s something you can’t get with digital sequencers like Cubase or Pro Tools. Or any other software for that matter. The experience of touching a knob, gripping it so hard that your knuckles show, and then start riding that thing like it was never ridden before!

A software will always be the same. No matter how often you change the levels, the fader will never look any different that it did when you first installed the host software.

See you…


Finding the right plugin for the job (Part 2)

17 05 2012

Let’s say you have recorded the first track and you are pretty proud of yourself. You listen to your recording and the first impression is kind of OK.

Then you will start to listen to the recording again. And again. You will listen to it over and over and over, because, let’s not kid ourselves here, you’re not a pro. You’re a beginner. And that’s what beginners do. Your brain needs time to adapt and comprehend all the information given in this tutorial series.

After you have listened to your recording in Cubase for some time, you will notice a slight difference between you recording and your favorite commercial recordings. But..wait a minute. WAAAIT A MINUTE!!! What did I say here? Yes, you are correct, you should always compare your recordings to another recording which you choose as a reference. This reference recording should be made by a true recording pro. Do not try to get away with less. In order to drag yourself out of the mud, you have to mess with the best. Or you will die like the rest!

So now that you compare your recording to a pro recording you will probably find, that your recording is lacking a certain something. You might not yet have the words to describe what it is exactly that your track does not have, but you feel that there is something slightly off. A little itching in the back of your mind tells your, that there might be something missing here.

That something are effects!

Effects are necessary for a professional music production today. You will simply not find any commercial production these days that doesn’t use at least SOME effects. Even if you’re not able to hear them. Your ears are not yet accustomed to the subtle details, and don’t blame yourself. These skills take time to develop. So even if you think that a particular song does in fact have no effects on it whatsoever, you are probably wrong.

The different types are plentiful and complicated. It takes a lifetime to really see through the plugin forest and use them to fullest. As a recording pro with years of experience under my belt I use can say that I now have achieved this state. Actually I achieved it a couple of years ago.

But for an ordinary recording engineer to look at the vast amount of compressors, limiters, EQs, delays and all that, for such a person not to get confused takes some time and dedication.

Another thing is that nowadays people start out recording with digital tools. They never had the chance to learn the craft from the ground up. They never worked in a big major studio, where the huge stars would record their legendary albums. Here they would have learned how to use effects. Believe me that. Talking about school of hard knocks.

Finding the right tool for the job is paramount. But it is also hard. In the next section of this hands-on pro-tutorial I will share some secret tips and tricks about how to pick the right plugin. These surprisingly simple rules of thumb will make your life a whole easier. So stay tuned…

Finding the right plugin for the job (Part 1)

11 12 2011

For me, as a seasoned pro with years of experience under my belt, it is pretty easy to find the right plugin for the job. Most of the time I run on auto-pilot.
But for somebody like you, who has just started out, and maybe will never make it to the top, choosing the right plugin can be an overwhelming task.
It is important that you believe in yourself and give it an honest try. Don’t give up too easily. There are lots and lots of examples, where people with even less talent than you, have managed to find themselves a niche in the recording industry and have their little outcome. It’s not the best of lifes, but it is a life.

A case study

I was recording a hard rock band, and things went pretty smoothly, as is most often the case when you put a bunch of pros together. Real professional don’t mess around, they mean business. There is on room for people who want to have small talk for a couple of hours, then go off to have a coffee, and then come back at 9 o’clock in the evening to start working. That’s not how things work in the recording business.You have to be ready. You have to work hard and give your best. That’s what counts in the end, because that’s what brings the professional production to life.

So, I had already recorded the drums and the bass, but, although the tracks sounded good when played by themselves, I wasn’t quite satisfied with the way the sounded when played together. Something just didn’t seem quite right here, and knew immediately what it was. I had recorded the drums on several different tracks. I usually use one for kick drums, one or two for the snare, two for the toms and two for the overheads, also called cymbals. I had recorded the bass on one mono track by directly plugging it into my SSL console.
In order to keep the peaks under control, I used a little bit of compression from the built-in compressor. The SSL compressor sounds pretty nice. I only use a little, because it is easy to overdo. Compression, once applied, can not be taken away. You can not bring back something you have taken away before recording it. The recorded signal does not contain the information about the peak values anymore, and there is no way to bring them back. No matter how good the overall quality of the recording is, these are the universal rules or audio recording.

I had also applied a little bit of EQ. Not much, just a tad of highs added and some cutting below 33Hz in order to control the very low frequency range. That’s all I did. Now I had the tracks on my hard drive and loaded into Cubase. I had given the project a name and set up the input devices correctly. I was ready to go. The tracks did not blend together very well, and I knew that I had to do something about it, because if the tracks don’t fit together, it will be very hard to make a decent song. Everything should blend just fine, and appear to be part of the same song. That’s absolutely key for every single one of my productions.

Cubase Compressor[/caption]

I decided to use the Cubase compressor plugin. I selected the first tracks and fired it up. Bam! Instant gratification. I knew from experience what the right settings would be. There is always room to experiment, but it is good to have a rough idea of what the settings could be, to have a starting point. Otherwise you could try endlessly to get the track to sound better without any success. You would be completely lost. Maybe as a beginner you would even come to the conclusion, that a compressor is in fact not the right tool for the job, and start to look for alternatives. That would be a huge mistake, and it is of vital importance to void it. A beginner has to learn how to use a compressor, as it one of the most important tools in every mixing engineers arsenal. This includes being able to dial in sensible settings right away, and then go on from there.

I will continue this case study in part 2 of this tutorial.

Using plugins (Part 2)

10 12 2011
Waves SSL EQ Plugin

Waves SSL EQ Plugin

One great things about Cubase is, that it comes with so many plugins right out of the box.  Whether you need an equalizer or a compressor or a limiter, Cubase will have something for you on board! The quality of those plugins is really good as well.
There are, however, a lot of third-party plugins as well, and it can be hard for a newbie to tell the difference between the individual offers.
One special advantage of the Cubase plugins as opposed to third-party plugins is, that they are integrated more seamlessly. This is because almost all of Cubases own plugins already use the VST 3 standard, while most third-party plugins use an older version of the VST standard.

Many plugins try to emulate a hardware device that really exists. They even make the User Interface so that it looks like the actual hardware device. It’s like the original device somehow got digitalized and jumped right into the computer. A fascinating experience for a seasoned pro with many years of experience under his belt, who works with the actual hardware devices on a daily basis. Suddenly you are no longer limited by the number of vintage compressors you can afford. All you have to do is buy the plugin once, and then use it as often as you see fit on any track. Using an LA-2 compressor on every track would not have been possible in the good old days. Nobody had this much money, not even a super-pro like me. Nowadays you can not only use one on every track, but you can actually chain them together and create intricate effects, that only a true recording master can even appreciate.

URS Compressor Plugins

URS Compressor Plugins

Emulating original studio hardware is the big thing for plugin manufacturers and customers alike. The advantages are clear: by emulating a Neve preamp, for example, a plugin manufacturer doesn’t have to come up with his own sounds. He can simply take the sound of the Neve preamp and copy it. That’s a huge advantage. Developing a sound, making it heard, getting it into the heads of people around the world can be a challenging task. How much easier is it to simply take a sound that is well-known, and heard on thousands upon thousands of famous and not-so-famous recordings, and just build your little app around it. Most software developers are not particularly bright, so this approach plays right into their hands. They love it!

There are times however, where using a vintage plugin is not the right thing to do. Sometimes what you want is a clean equalizer, that doesn’t add color or texture to the sound, but simply does it’s job controlling the frequencies. Without much character or vintage mojo. When you want transparency instead of coloration, you turn to the standard plugins that are delivered with Cubase. Equalizers and compressors, as well as delay, chorus and a lot of other effects are right there to be used in any way you like.

As a pro, I can tell you that I use these on a regular basis even on some demanding and pretty high-profile commercial productions. It does not always have to be a Waves vintage mojo effect. In fact, it is better to learn your craft using the ordinary plugins first. Once you get a hang of how to use the standard Cubase compressor, you can then turn to more sophisticated variants of the same theme. Beginners always seem to think, the latest mojo plugin is what will make their projects sound professional. But they are mistaken. A true pro will make a pro recording with a minimal selection of standard plugins, because he knows how to use them to the fullest. He has a true understanding of when and how to employ a specific effect, and it is exactly this knowledge, that seperates the newbies from the seasoned pros, with years of experience under their respective belts.

Using Plugins (Part 1)

7 12 2011

Cubase already comes with a huge selection of plugins. Most of the plugins will be installed automatically. There are, however, also plugins that do not get installed as a default, but in fact have to be copied off the Cubase-CD. These plugins are mainly older models which are still shipped in case you have old projects that use them. If Steinberg didn’t ship these plugins, you would get an error-message when opening an older project that uses one of those plugins.

Cubase Reverence Plugin

Cubase Reverence Plugin

What happens here is that the old project (it does not have to be that old, actually)  would browse through a list of plugins that it needs to open, and when it comes to the legacy  plugin, it cannot find it and therefore shows an error message. This is easily avoided, though, by simply copying the plugins from the specific folder on your Cubase-CD into the plugin folder on your hard drive. If you can’t find the folder, refer to the pro tips in part 1 on finding something. If you use that knowledge, it will be easy to find the folder you are looking for. The information in part 1 is based on years of experience, but is, of course, provided as is. This is the valuable lesson I would like you to learn: if a pro recording engineer is prepared to share an information snippet, don’t hesitate. Make it your own and use it to the fullest.

But wait a minute. What is a plugin, actually? Let’s take a look…a plugin is a piece of software that you literally plug-in to your sequencer software, much like other things that are plugged in.
It is then ready to be used from within the host software, in our case Cubase. It becomes part of the software! In order for the plugin to be able to communicate with the host software, and give the impression as if it was actually one single piece of software, it needs what is called a protocol. A protocol is kind of a language that both the host software (Cubase) and the plugin agree to speak.

There are two basic protocols that are employed in the Windows world: one is called VST and the other is Direct X. Most of you probably know Direct X as something that has to do with graphics, but it also provides an interface for audio applications. But it is rarely used these days – Direct X has several disadvantages, that make it less desirable to be used in a professional recording environment. I won’t go into the details right now, because it’s such a wide and complicated topic and, honestly, it would be a little bit too much for a newbie to understand. As a beginner it is good to be eager to learn new things, but at the same time, you also have to know your limits, or you will get burned!

As I already said, most plugins use the VST protocol. This is an old protocol that was first introduced by the Steinberg company in the early 90s. Today it is the de-facto standard of plugin protocols, and every plugin manufacturer is better off using the VST protocol as opposed to other protocols, that are not supported by the big 6 of sequencer software. How could they hope to ever sell their product, if it can’t be used in any host software? The manufacturers know this damn well, and so they abandoned other protocols, that weren’t supported, and went straight to VST and Direct X.

VST standardizes the way the sound travels within the system and what the user interface of the plugin looks like. It is a whole language that only serves one purpose: to allow communication between the host software and the client software. It also does allow for some nifty routing tricks, that are not possible with Direct X. I will go into the details of side-chaining and other super-pro-tricks in a later tutorial.

Setting up a new project in Cubase (Part 1)

7 12 2011

When setting up a new project there are a couple of things to keep an eye on. I will guide through the process and drop a couple of valuable pro-tips as I go along. Make sure you stay focused and ready to pick them up. For a newbie every single one of my droppings can be a crystal ball, a unique insight into the world of pro audio recording.

First, you have to think of a name for the project. What is it about? What do you record? What is the name of the song? The answer to any of those questions can give you ideas for a sensible project name. Many beginners make the mistake of ignoring this aspect, but they later regret it. Choosing a good name is crucial if you want to keep track of what you’re doing.

Cubase 6

Cubase 6

The more Cubase projects you have, the more important is it to be able to tell what is what,  without having to open the actual project and listen to the song.
As a pro engineer I have to tell with a quick glance, which project is which. I choose razor-sharp, precise pro-recording-names. The moment a project name hits my retina, I know exactly whether I want to open it or not. No fooling around. Time is money. Good housekeeping is essential.

Let’s say you want to record an Indie rock band called ‘Johnny Meets Julie In The Park’. The song is called ‘Memories of my past life’. The whole thing is to be released on a record, which does not have a title, yet. Now the first step would be to use the band name, as well as the song name for the project. But if the band ever comes back to record another album with you, then you would have a hard time telling which song belongs to which album. It is therefore desirable to include an album title in the project name. What can you do? Well, it’s time to get creative here.

In the music business, or actually the whole entertainment industry, it is common practice to come up with what is called a working title. You will hear that particular term often when it comes to new movies. They don’t decide on a title until the movie is almost ready to be released. Now in order to be able to talk about the project, and be sure the other person knows what they are referring to, they use a working title. That’s a title that its attached to a project, but is known to be temporary in nature. The finished production will probably have a totally different title. Although, it could have just as well have the same title. But it has not yet been decided upon by the powers that be.

Back to our project, the first approach that comes to mind is to ask the band which you record, if they have a working title for their upcoming album. But since they’re a bunch of Indie slackers to begin with, they have probably not thought about this, yet. Plus, they will probably have a hard time coming up with something, because they fill up everything with meaning, and then cannot agree on anything. Even though it would be necessary in order to move things forward, to simply get things done.

They can argue endlessly about this type of things. These people have no clue, what it is like having to work for money, and maybe having to do things that you don’t enjoy, simply because you want to be able to pay your own bills. With these types, everything has to be clever or ironic, or at least what they think of as clever. Because most of the time, there ideas are in fact not clever or original at all, but merely a poor copy of something that has already been done a lot better 30 years ago.

The fact that they are not able to come up with a working title for their own album does not mean, however, that they won’t complain about a title somebody else comes up with. They probably will. The best practice here is to think of a name, and then not tell the band about it. Even better is it, to use something that does not evoke any emotions, like a number. So you would name the new project:
‘Johnny Meets Julie In The Park – 912 – Memories of my past life’

Now, that’s a little long, isn’t it? We will see what we can do about this in the next part of this pro recording tutorial…

Setting up the input devices in Cubase (Part 2)

7 12 2011
Recording pro Hank D.

Recording pro Hank D.

In part 1 of this tutorial we have seen how choosing no input device could spell trouble for your pro recording projects, as it results in an empty audio track. The track you recorded does not even deserve the name ‘audio track’, because there is no audio in it whatsoever! That’s not much of an audio track, is it?
So, you think you learned your lesson: if you choose an input device, everything should be fine, right? Wrong! The following example will make that clear as day…

Your aunt Thelma is in town. She is only here for a couple of days and you’re looking forward to seeing her again. She comes over and you spent a nice evening together. You’re both having a great time! At some point during the conversation, you mention your Cubase sequencer software, and what you can do with it. Aunt Thelma is stoked. She sings in a choir at her local church and would love to record herself and delete that recording afterwards. But, of course, not without actually listening to it before.
You both decide to make an audio recording of her voice. She grabs the microphone like a pro and starts singing. ‘Sha-la-la-long she-bong!’ After some time you ask her if she is ready to be recorded, which she confirms. You check if the microphone is turned on and whether it is connected to your DAW. Affirmative! You hit the record-button in Cubase and aunt Thelma starts to sing..
After some time she is done and you hit the stop-button. The recording is finished. You double-click the stop-button so the position marker jumps back to the beginning of the audio file. A quick look confirms that Cubase did in fact create an audio file, which is now ready to be used in all your pro audio recording projects. You decide to listen to the track, and hit the play-button. After some time it becomes clear that something went wrong. No matter how hard you listen, there is simply no sound to be heard. Aunt Thelma can’t hear anything either. She is disappointed, to say the least. Later you find out, that you had chosen the wrong input device, which in turn led to Cubase not being able to record the voice.

These are only two examples of what can go wrong, when you don’t choose an input device in Cubase, or, as we have seen in the last example, choose an input device that is not the right one. As a professional recording engineer with years of practice, I can tell you: there are tons more, Each and every day, somebody wants to record an audio track, but is disappointed with the results, just because he did not select the correct input device.

I have to hammer home this point: you not only have to select an input device, but you have to make doubly sure that you select the right input device. Otherwise it will simply not be possible to make a pro recording, and all the secret pro tips in the world will be of no use to you. It might seem a bit of a hassle at first, but it is well worth the effort in the long run. I know, a newbie wants to start right away recording and mixing the next hit, but you have to do your homework first. By choosing the right input device in Cubase you lay the foundation for everything that comes in the future. Your destiny is in your hands.

This concludes part 1 of the Cubase Pro Recording Tutorial.